Reynard

Thu, 06/20/2013 - 09:51 -- sewm02

REYNARD'S RAMBLINGS

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Reynard at Home: Welcome to Maupertuis

Welcome to Maupertuis, home of the infamous Reynard the Fox. This tricky and treacherous creature has hoodwinked many a woodland animal, inspiring folk tales, short stories, and movies tracing back to the original Old French.

We students in English 4400 at Fairmont State University read the tales of Reynard for the first time in January of 2010. We wanted to do more research on Reynard, but felt frustrated because information on him was so widely scattered, especially on the internet. We then decided to put together a website that would help other researchers by categorizing existing Reynard scholarship and artistic treatments.

Feel free to peruse this site to learn more about Reynard. We hope to arouse interest in Reynard’s deviously inspiring tales, in everyone ranging from the mildly curious to the scholastically inquisitive.

Please enjoy your stay at Maupertuis.

Reynard in Bibliography

We are not the first to assemble a bibliography of the works related to this fox, but have attempted in our site to augment the work of other scholars.

 

Le Roman de Renart Bibliographie. Arlima - Archives de littérature du Moyen Age. Ed. Laurent Brun. 29 Nov. 2009. 13 Mar. 2010 <http://www.arlima.net/qt/renart_roman.html>.

Varty, Kenneth. The Roman de Renart: a Guide to Scholarly Work. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 1998.

 

Reynard in Manuscript

Complete or partial texts of the Roman de Renart appear in various manuscripts housed in a number of European and American libraries. Here are the known references for manuscript access.

Belgium

Ms. II 139. Bibliothèque Royale de Belgique, Bruxelles.

 

France

Ms. 472 (626). Bibliothèque du Château, Chantilly.

Archives et manuscrits. Bibliothèque Nationale. 2009. 14 Mar. 2010 <http://archivesetmanuscrits.bnf.fr/cdc.html>. This site enables one to search through the Bibliothèque Nationale manuscript collections.

Ms. Arsenal 3334. Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris.

Ms. Arsenal 3335. Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris.

Ms. Français 371. Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris.

Ms. Français 1579. Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris.

Ms. Français 1580. Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris.

Ms. Français 1581. Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris.

Ms. Français 12148. Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris. 12 Mar. 2010 <http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b60004625>.

Ms. Français 12583. Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris.

Ms. Français 12584. Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris.

Ms. Français 20043. Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris.

Ms. Français 25545. Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris.

Ms. Nouvelles acquisitions françaises 5237. Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris.

 

Great Britain

Ms. Additional 15229. British Library, London.

Ms. Douce 360. Bodleian Library, Oxford.

 

Italy

Ms. Varia 151. Biblioteca Nazionale Universitaria, Torino.

 

United States

Ms. M. 932. Morgan Library, New York.

Reynard in Print

If a collection of Reynard the Fox stories has been published, it may be referenced here. If you are not an English speaker, please select an edition in your local language to enjoy from the list on the right!

If your favorite edition does not appear here, please contact us and we will be glad to add it.

French Editions

Amon, Evelyne. Le Roman de Renart. N11. Hatier, 2002.

Anonyme. Le Roman de Renart. Ill. Frédéric Stehr. Paris: L'École des loisirs, 1988.

Anonyme. Le Roman de Renart, vol. 1. Fol. Jr. éd. Sp2. Gallimard Jeunesse, 1997.

Batany, Jean. Scènes et coulisses du "Roman de Renart". Paris: SEDES, 1989.

Bossuât, Robert. Le Roman de Renart. Paris: Hatier, 1967.

Chomienne, Marianne. Le Roman de Renart. Classico collège. Belin Littérature et Revues, 2010.

Collectif. Le Roman de Renart. Le livre de poche Jeunesse. Hachette Jeunesse, 2004.

De Delessert. Roman de Renard, numéro 7, 25 exemplaires. Éditions Gallimard. 1982.

Delbouille, Maurice. "Les fabliaux et Le Roman de Renart." Lettres belges de langue française. Dir. Charlier et Hanse. Bruxelles: La renaissance du livre, 1958.

Dufournet, Jean, éd. Le Roman de Renard (Martin). Paris: Garnier-Flammarion, 1970.

Dufournet, Jean et Andrée Méline, tr. Le Roman de Renart. 2 vols. Paris: Garnier-Flammarion, 1985.

Édition complète, Bibliothèque de la Pléiade, avril 1998.

Édition Michel Lévy Frères éditeurs, Collection Hetzel & Lévy. Paris, 1858.

Foulet, Lucien. Le Roman de Renart. Paris: Libraire Honore Champion, 1968.

Fukomoto, N., N. Harano, and N. Suzuki, éds. Le Roman de Renart. Tokyo: France Tosho, 1983-85.

Gally, Michèle et Élisabeth Pinto-Mathieu. Le Roman de Renart. Clefs Concours-Histoire Moderne. Atlande, 2007.

Genevoix, Maurice. Le Roman de Renart. Paris: Presses de la Cite, 1958.

Heitz, Bruno. Le Roman de Renart, Tome 1: Ysengrin. Gallimard-Jeunesse, 2007.

Lecoy, Félix, éd. Le Roman de Renart, branche XX et dernière, Renart empereur, édite d'après le manuscrit Cagné. Paris: Champion, 1999.

Mathis, Jean-Marc et Thierry Martin. Le Roman de Renart, Tome 1: Les jambons d’Ysengrin. Delcourt Jeunesse, 2007.

---. Le Roman de Renart, Tome 2: Le puits. Delcourt Jeunesse, 2008.

---. Le Roman de Renart, Tome 3: Le jugement de Renart. Delcourt Jeunesse, 2009.

Piazza, H. Ed. L'Art 1966, couverture et ornements décoratifs par Jan-Loic Delbord, 204 p.

Potvin, Charles. Le Roman du Renart. Paris: Bohne, 1861.

Rabier, Benjamin. Le Roman du Renard. Taillandier, 2004.

Rey-Flaud, Henri et André Eskénazi, tr. Le Roman de Renart. Paris: Libraire Honore Champion, 1978.

---. Le Roman de Renart : Branche 1. 2nd ed. Paris: Libraire Honore Champion, 1984.

Robinot-Bichet, Marie-Hélène. Le Roman de Renart. Biblio collège. Hachette Éducation, 1999.

Le Roman de Renart: textes choisis. La bibliothèque. Gallimard, 2003.

Roques, Mario, éd. Le Roman de Renart (Cange). 3 vols. Paris: Libraire Honore Champion. 1972-74.

Tuffrau, Paul. Version nouvelle. L'Artisan du Livre, 1942 (avec des gravures sur bois de Lucien Boucher)

 

English Editions

Anderson, Rachel, David Bradby, and Bob Dewar. Renard the Fox. Oxford University Press, 1987.

Caxton, William. The Booke of Raynarde the Foxe. New York: Da Capo Press, 1969.

---. The History of Reynard the Fox. Ed. N. F. Blake. The Early English Text Society Series: Number 263. London: Oxford University Press, 1970.

---. The History of Reynard the Fox. Ed. Edmund Goldsmid. Priv. pr.: 1884. 17 Mar. 2010 <http://www.archive.org/details/historyreynardf00goldgoog>.

---. The History of Reynard the Fox. Early Prose Romances. Ed. Henry Morley. London: George Routledge and Sons, 1889. 15 Mar. 2010 <http://bestiary.ca/etexts/morley1889/morley1889.htm>.

Dahl, Roald. Fantastic Mr. Fox. Puffin, 1998.

Ellis, F.S., tr. The History of Reynard the Fox. Ill. Walter Crane. London: D. Nutt, 1894.

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang. Reynard the Fox: after the German version of Goethe. Tr. A. Douglas Ainslie. London: Macmillan, 1886. Full text: http://books.google.com/books?id=rxETAAAAYAAJ&dq=reynard%20the%20fox&pg=PP3#v=onepage&q=&f=false

Guerber, H. A. Reynard the Fox. Legends of the Middle Ages. Ch. 3. New York: American Book Company, 1896. 14 Mar. 2010 <http://bestiary.ca/etexts/guerber1896/guerber1896.htm>.

Masefield, John. Reynard the Fox. Norwood, MA: Norwood Press, 1920. Full text, with illustrations: http://books.google.com/books?id=KycPAAAAMAAJ&dq=reynard%20the%20fox&pg=PR4#v=onepage&q=&f=false

Mora, Joseph Jacinto. Reynard the Fox. Boston: Dana Estes and Co., 1901. Full text, with illustrations: http://books.google.com/books?id=8VQ3sEu6U14C&dq=reynard%20the%20fox&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q=&f=false

Owen, D. D. R., tr. The Romance of Reynard the Fox. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Reinardus (Yearbook of the International Reynard Society). Vols. 1 and 2, Grave: Alfa, 1988, 1989; Vol. 3, Amsterdam: Benjamins, 1990.

Smythe, Emma Louise. Reynard the Fox. New York: American Book Co., 1903. Full text, with illustrations: http://books.google.com/books?id=QE8XAAAAIAAJ&dq=reynard%20the%20fox&as_brr=1&pg=PA29#v=onepage&q=&f=false

Terry, Patricia A., tr. Renard the Fox. University of California Press, 1992.

Dutch Editions

Deschamps, J. "Nieuwe fragmenten van Van den vos Reynaerde." Aspects of the Medieval Animal Epic. Ed. E. Rombauts, A. Welkenhuysen, and G. Verbeke. Leuven: Leuven University Press, 1975. 257-264.

Janssens, J., R. van Daele, and V. Uyttersprot, eds. Van den vos Reynaerde, Reynaert I. Digitale Bibliotheek voor de Nederlandse Letteren, 2001.

German Editions

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von. The Story of Reynard the Fox. Tr. Thomas James Arnold. New York: The Heritage Press, 1954.

Here is the full translated text, complete with illustrations: http://books.google.com/books?id=U04WAAAAYAAJ&ots=N_BzCyvyrb&dq=reynard%20the%20fox&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q=&f=false

Latin Editions

Nivard of Ghent. Ysengrimus. Ed. E. Voigt. Halle, 1884.

Reinardus vulpes. Ed. F. J. Mone. Stuttgart, 1832.

Braille Editions

Boudet, Robert. Le Roman de Renart. Braille abrégé. L'École des loisirs, 1989.

Reynard in the Bestiary Tradition

Tales of Reynard the Fox are inspired by (and in turn, later inspired) folklore and common knowledge about the nature of the fox. Here are medieval bestiaries that tell us what to expect from our sly woodland friend.

Badke, David. The Medieval Bestiary. 31 Jan. 2010. 14 Mar. 2010 <http://bestiary.ca/index.html>.

Baxter, Ron. "Learning from Nature: Lessons in Virtue and Vice in the Physiologus and Bestiaries." Virtue & Vice: the Personifications in the Index of Christian Art. Ed. Colum Hourihane. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000. 29-41.

Benton, Janetta Rebold. Medieval Menagerie: Animals in the Art of the Middle Ages. New York: Abbeville Press, 1992.

Bestiaire du Moyen Age. Arrêt sur le Roman de Renart. Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris. 13 Mar. 2010. <http://expositions.bnf.fr/bestiaire/pedago/index.htm>.

Boyd, Evelyn Mae. The Lure of Creatures True and Legendary. Canada: Davis & Henderson Limited, 1978.

Carr-Gomm, Philip and Stephanie. The Druid Animal Oracle: Working with the Sacred Animals of the Druid Tradition. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994.

Cherry, John, ed. Mythical Beasts. London: British Museum Press/Pomegranate Artbooks, 1995.

Clark, Anne. Beasts and Bawdy. New York: Taplinger Publishing Company, 1975.

Cooper, J. C. Symbolic and Mythological Animals. London: The Aquarian Press, 1992.

Curley, Michael J. Physiologus. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1979.

Hassig, Debra. Homo animal est, homo animal non est: Text and Image in Medieval English Bestiaries. New York: Columbia University Press, 1993.

Houwen, L. A. J. R. Animal Parallelism in Medieval Literature and the Bestiaries: a Preliminary Investigation.

Lum, Peter. Fabulous Beasts. New York: Pantheon Books, 1951.

Mann, Jill. From Aesop to Reynard: Beast Literature in Medieval Britain. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.

Payne, Ann. Medieval Beasts. New York: New Amsterdam Books, 1990.

Podwal, Mark H. A Jewish Bestiary: a Book of Fabulous Creatures Drawn from Hebraic Legend and Lore. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America, 1984.

Schrader, J. L., ed. A Medieval Bestiary. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1986.

Steele, Robert. Mediaeval Lore from Bartholomew Anglicus. London: Alexander Moring, 1893.

Topsell, Edward and Malcolm South, eds. Topsell's Histories of Beasts.Chicago: Nelson-Hall, 1981.

Tucker, Suzetta. Christian Legends & Symbols. 1999.

Voisenet, Jacques. "Le Renard dans le bestiaire des clercs médiévaux." Reinardus: Yearbook of the International Reynard Society 9 (1996): 179-88.

Reynard in Scholarship

Reynard inspires much scholarly work, from comparison with other roguish tales to in-depth character analysis. Here is a list of Reynard scholarship that we have found intriguing, enlightening, and exciting.

Do you know of Reynard scholarship not on this list? Please contact us using the link at the bottom of this page and we will be glad to add it.

Image:Fox_With_A_Bird_In_Its_Mouth_Royalty_Free_Clipart_Picture_090121-131404-587048.jpg

Amer, Sahar. "A Fox Is Not Always a Fox! Or How Not to Be a Renart in Marie de France's 'Fables.'" Rocky Mountain Review of Language and Literature 51.1 (1987): 9-20.

Bellon, Roger. "La Parodie Epique dans les Premieres Branches du Roman de Renart." Epopee Animale, Fable, Fabliau: Actes du IVe Colloque de la Societe Internationale Renardienne. Ed. Gabriel Bianciotto and Michel Salvat. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1984. 71-94.

---. "Trickery as an Element of the Character of Renart." Forum for Modern Language Studies 22.1 (Jan. 1986): 34-52.

Best, T. W. Reynard the Fox. TWAS, 673. Boston: Twayne, 1983.

Bidard, Josseline. "Reynard the Fox as Anti-Hero." Heroes and Heroines in Medieval English Literature. Ed. Leo Carruthers. Cambridge: Brewer, 1994. 119-123.

Blake, N. F. "Reflections on William Caxton's 'Reynard the Fox.'" Canadian Journal of Netherlandic Studies/Revue 4.1 (May 1983): 69-76.

---. "Reynard the Fox in England." Aspects of the Medieval Animal Epic. Ed. E. Rombauts, A. Welkenhuysen, and G. Verbeke. Leuven: Leuven University Press, 1975. 53-66.

Bloch, R. Howard. Medieval French Literature and the Law. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1977.

Busby, Keith. Codex and Context: Reading Old French Verse Narrative in Manuscript. 2 vols. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2002.

Colledge, E. Renard the Fox and Other Mediaeval Netherlands Secular Literature. Leyden: Heinemann, 1967.

Dufournet, Jean, and Kenneth Varty. "The Death and Resurrection of the Roman de Renart." Reynard the Fox: Social Engagement and Cultural Metamorphoses in the Beast Epic from the Middle Ages to the Present. Ed. Kenneth Varty. New York: Berghahn Books, 2000.

Flinn, John F. "Litterature bourgeoise et le Roman de Renart." Aspects of the Medieval Animal Epic. Ed. E. Rombauts, A. Welkenhuysen, and G. Verbeke. Leuven: Leuven University Press, 1975. 11-24.

---. Le Roman de Renart dans la litterature francaise et dans les litteratures etrangeres au moyen age. University of Toronto Press, 1963.

Gottert, K. H. "Uberlieferungsprobmatik und Wirkungsgeschichte des mittelhochdeutschen Reinhart Fuchs." Aspects of the Medieval Animal Epic. Ed. E. Rombauts, A. Welkenhuysen, and G. Verbeke. Leuven: Leuven University Press, 1975. 67-84.

Graven, Jean. Le Proces criminel du Roman de Renart. Geneva: Georg et Cie., 1950.

Gupta, R. D. "Indian Parallels of the Fox Story." Aspects of the Medieval Animal Epic. Ed. E. Rombauts, A. Welkenhuysen, and G. Verbeke. Leuven: Leuven University Press, 1975. 241-250.

Gysseling, M. "Datering en localisering van Reinaert I." Aspects of the Medieval Animal Epic. Ed. E. Rombauts, A. Welkenhuysen, and G. Verbeke. Leuven: Leuven University Press, 1975. 165-186.

Hagtingius, Tobias. "A Pornographic Fox." Epopee Animale, Fable, Fabliau: Actes du IVe Colloque de la Societe Internationale Renardienne. Ed. Gabriel Bianciotto and Michel Salvat. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1984. 235-248.

Harano, Noboru. "Caracteres des manuscrits du groupe G du Roman de Renart." Epopee Animale, Fable, Fabliau: Actes du IVe Colloque de la Societe Internationale Renardienne. Ed. Gabriel Bianciotto and Michel Salvat. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1984. 249-254.

Harma, Elina Suomela. "...li goupil ou li renart ont fosses..." Revue des Langues Romanes 98.2 (1994): 269-286.

Holmes, U. T. "A Possible Source for Branch I of the Roman de Renart." Romance Review 17 (1926): 143-148.

Honegger, Thomas. "A Fox Is a Fox...the Fox and the Wolf Reconsidered." Reinardus: Yearbook of the International Reynard Society 9 (1996): 59-74.

Jodogne, Omer. "L'anthropomorphisme croissant dans le Roman de Renart." Aspects of the Medieval Animal Epic. Ed. E. Rombauts, A. Welkenhuysen, and G. Verbeke. Leuven: Leuven University Press, 1975. 25-42.

Jones, Malcolm. Reynard the Fox: Social Engagement and Cultural Metamorphoses in the Beast Epic from the Middle Ages to the Present. Ed. Kenneth Varty. New York: Berghahn Books, 2000.

Lambrecht, D. "Reinaert en de zeind van deken Herman." Aspects of the Medieval Animal Epic. Ed. E. Rombauts, A. Welkenhuysen, and G. Verbeke. Leuven: Leuven University Press, 1975. 187-198.

Lodge, Anthony and Kenneth Varty. The Earliest Branches of Le Roman de Renart. New Alyth: Lochee, 1989.

Mish, Charles C. . "Reynard the Fox in the Seventeenth Century." The Huntington Library Quarterly. 17.4 (1954): 327-344.

Parlevliet, Sanne. "Hunting Renard: How Reynard the Fox Tricked His Way into English and Dutch Children's Literature." Children's Literature in Education. 39.2 (2008): 107-120.

Peeters, Leopold. "Merovingian Foxes and the Medieval Reynard." Amsterdamer Beitrage zur Alteren Germanistik 29 (1989): 131-150.

---. "Taalonderzoek in Van den Vos Reynaerde." Aspects of the Medieval Animal Epic. Ed. E. Rombauts, A. Welkenhuysen, and G. Verbeke. Leuven: Leuven University Press, 1975. 143-164.

Regalado, Nancy Freeman. "Tristan and Renart: Two Tricksters." L'esprit createur 16.1 (1976): 30-38.

Rombauts, E. "Grimbeert's Defense of Reinaert in Van den Vos Reynaerde. An Example of oratio iudicialis?" Aspects of the Medieval Animal Epic. Ed. E. Rombauts, A. Welkenhuysen, and G. Verbeke. Leuven: Leuven University Press, 1975. 129-142.

Rowland, Beryl. Blind Beasts: Chaucer's Animal World. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1971.

Saintsbury, George. The Flourishing of Romance and the Rise of Allegory. Edinburgh: William Blackwood and Sons, 1897.

Sands, Donald B. "Reynard the Fox and the Manipulation of the Popular Proverb." The Learned and the Lewed: Studies in Chaucer and Medieval Literature. Ed. Larry D. Benson. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1974. 125-278.

Scheffler, C. "Die deutsche spatmittelalterliche Reineke-Fuchs-Dichtung und ihre Bearbeitungen bis in die Neuzeit." Aspects of the Medieval Animal Epic. Ed. E. Rombauts, A. Welkenhuysen, and G. Verbeke. Leuven: Leuven University Press, 1975. 85-104.

Scheidegger, Jean R. Le Roman de Renart ou le texte de la derision. Geneva: Droz, 1989.

Schenck, Mary Jane. "Hersent's History: the Unmarked Story in the Roman de Renart." Grant Risee? The Medieval Comic Presence. Essays in Honour of Brian J. Levy. Ed. Adrian P. Tudor and Alan Hindley. Turnhout: Brepols, 2006. 291-304.

Schouwink, Wilfried. "Reineke from the Pen of a Mercenary: Hartmann Schopper's Opus poeticum." Reinardus: Yearbook of the International Reynard Society 7 (1994): 162-182.

Schulze-Busacker, Elisabeth. "Renart, le jongleur étranger: analyse thématique et linguistique à partir de la Branche Ib." Epopee Animale, Fable, Fabliau: Actes du IIIe Colloque Internationale Renardienne. Ed. Gabriel Bianciotto and Michel Salvat. Münster 1980, Köln / Wien (Böhlau), 1982. 380-391.

Shallers, Alvin P. The Renart Tradition in the Literature of Medieval England. University of Wisconsin Press, 1971.

Simpson, James R. Animal Body, Literary Corpus: the Old French "Roman de Renart." Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1996.

---. "'F***ing Peasants': Presence, Status, and Sexuality in Renart et Bertot." Grant Risee? The Medieval Comic Presence. Essays in Honour of Brian J. Levy. Ed. Adrian P. Tudor and Alan Hindley. Turnhout: Brepols, 2006. 319-335.

Spillemaeckers, Diederik L. Reynard the Fox: The Evolution of His Character in Select Medieval Beast Epics. Michigan State University Press, 1970.

Subrenat, Jean. "Les Confessions de Renart." Epopee Animale, Fable, Fabliau: Actes du IVe Colloque de la Societe Internationale Renardienne. Ed. Gabriel Bianciotto and Michel Salvat. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1984. 625-640.

Sudre, Leopold. Les Sources du Roman de Renard. Paris: Emile Bouillon, 1893.

Sullivan, Karen. "'Filz a putein, puant heirites': the Heterodoxy of Renart." Reinardus 16 (2003): 183-194.

Sunderland, Luke. "Le Cycle de Renart: from the Enfances to the Jugement in a Cyclical Roman de Renart Manuscript." French Studies 62.1 (2008): 1-12.

Tilander, Gunnar. Remarques sur Le Roman de Renart. Goteborg: Elanders Boktryckeri Aktiebolag, 1923.

Tregenza, W. A. "The Relation of the Oldest Branch of the Roman de Renart to the Tristan Poems." The Modern Language Review 19 (1924): 301-305.

Uther, Hans-Jorg. "The Fox in World Literature: Reflections on a Fictional Animal." Asian Folklore Studies 65.2 (2006): 133-160.

Van Dievoet, G. "Le Roman de Renart et Van den Vos Renaerde temoins fidelis de la procedure penale aux XII et XIII siecles?" Aspects of the Medieval Animal Epic. Ed. E. Rombauts, A. Welkenhuysen, and G. Verbeke. Leuven: Leuven University Press, 1975. 43-52.

Varty, Kenneth. "Animal Fable and Fabulous Animal: The Evolution of the Species with Specific Reference to the Foxy Kind." Bestia: Yearbook of the Beast Fable Society 3 (May 1991): 5-14.

---. "Back to the Beginning of the Romans de Renart." Nottingham Medieval Studies 29 (1985): 44-72.

---. "Love, Marriage, and Family Relationships in the Ysengrimus and the Roman de Renart." Revue canadienne d'etudes neerlandaises 4 (1983): 39-52.

---. "The Passage of the Fox from One Fictitious World to Another in the Roman de Renart." Remembrances et resveries. Hommage a Jean Batany. Ed. Huguette Legros et al. Orleans: Paradigme, 2006. 281-289.

---. "Reynard the Fox and the Smithfield Decretals." Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 26 (1963): 247-354.

Vitale-Brovarone, Alessandro. "Testo e attitudini del pubblico nel Roman de Renart." Epopee Animale, Fable, Fabliau: Actes du IVe Colloque de la Societe Internationale Renardienne. Ed. Gabriel Bianciotto and Michael Salvat. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1984. 669-686.

Weimann, Klaus. Middle English Animal Literature. Exeter Medieval English Texts. Exeter: University of Exeter, 1975.

Welkenhuysen, A. "A Latin Link in the Flemish Chain: The Reynardus Vulpes, Its Authorship and Date." Aspects of the Medieval Animal Epic. Ed. E. Rombauts, A. Welkenhuysen, and G. Verbeke. Leuven: Leuven University Press, 1975. 113-129.

Whiting, B. J. "Proverbial Material from the Old French Poem on Reynard the Fox." Harvard Studies and Notes in Philology and Literature 18 (1935): 235-270.

Ziolkowski, Jan M. Talking Animals: Medieval Latin Beast Poetry, 750-1150. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylania Press, 1993.

Reynard in Music and Art

What good is an Old French tale if it hasn’t inspired artistic representation? Here are the works we’ve found so far.

Anderson, M. D. Misericords: Medieval Life in English Woodcarving. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1954.

Benton, Janetta Rebold. Medieval Menagerie: Animals in the Art of the Middle Ages. New York: Abbeville Press, 1992.

Bestiaire du Moyen Age. Arrêt sur le Roman de Renart. Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris. 13 Mar. 2010 <http://expositions.bnf.fr./bestiaire/pedago/index.htm>.

Collins, Arthur H. "Some Twelfth-Century Animal Carvings and Their Sources in the Bestiaries." The Connoisseur 106.472 (1940): 238-243.

---. Symbolism of Animals and Birds Represented in English Church Architecture. New York: McBride, Nast & Company, 1913.

Cope, Julian. "Reynard the Fox." Fried. Universal Distribution, 2002. CD.

Flinn, J. F. "L'Iconographie du Roman de Renart." Aspects of the Medieval Animal Epic. Ed. E. Rombauts, A. Welkenhuysen, and G. Verbeke. Leuven: Leuven University Press, 1975. 257-264.

Gathercole, Patricia M. "Illustrations of the 'Roman de Renart': Manuscripts BN fr. 1581 and BN fr. 12584." Gesta 10.1 (1971): 39-44.

Le Roman de Renart. Narr. Jean Rochefort. Mus. Valentin Clastrier. Fremeaux et associés, 2003.

Varty, Kenneth. "The Earliest Illustrated English Editions of Reynard the Fox; and Their Links with the Earliest Illustrated Continental Editions." Reynaert, Reynard, Reynke: Studien zu einem mittelalterlichen Tierepos. Ed. Jan Goossens and Timothy Sodmann. Koln: Bohlau, 1980. 160-195.

---. "Further Examples of the Fox in Medieval English Art." Aspects of the Medieval Animal Epic. Ed. E. Rombauts, A. Welkenhuysen, and G. Verbeke. Leuven: Leuven University Press, 1975. 251-56.

---. Reynard, Renart, Reinart, and Other Foxes in Medieval England: The Iconographic Evidence. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 1999.

---. Reynard the Fox. A Study of the Fox in Medieval English Art. Leicester: Leicester University Press, 1967.

---. "Reynard the Fox and the Smithfield Decretals." Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes. 26.3/4 (1963): 347-54.

Zumbult, Beatrice. "Approaching the Medieval Illustration Cycles of the Fox Epic as an Art Historian: Problems and Perspectives." Reinardus: Yearbook of the International Reynard Society 15 (2002): 191-204.

Reynard on Stage

It is one thing to read Reynard’s adventures, but another thing entirely to have human actors portray these legendary tales. These are the resources we’ve found pertaining to Reynard’s representation in the fine art of theatre.

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Anonyme. Le Roman de Renart. Ill. Frédéric Stehr. Paris: L'École des Loisirs, 1997.

de Merstone, Jeremy. Reynard the Fox. N.d. 8 Mar. 2010 <http://www.pa.msu.edu/people/perkins/reynard.html>.

Fauquez, Arthur. Reynard the Fox. Tr. Marie-Louise Roelants. Anchorage, KY: The Children's Theatre Press, 1962.

Jonson, Ben. Volpone, or The Fox. The Norton Anthology of English Literature. 8th ed. Ed. Stephen Greenblatt. Vol. B. New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 2006. 1334-1427.

Regalado, Nancy Freeman. "Staging the 'Roman de Renart': Medieval Theater and the Diffusion of Political Concerns into Popular Culture." Medievalia 18 (1995): 111-142.

Varty, Kenneth. "Reading, Reciting, and Performing the Renart." Performing Medieval Narrative. Ed. Evelyn Birge Vitz et al. Cambridge: Brewer, 2005. 155-166.

Reynard on the Silver Screen

Grab some popcorn and sit back with friends as you enjoy Reynard’s stories portrayed on film.

The Black Fox: The Rise and Fall of Adolf Hitler. Dir. Louis Clyde Stoumen. Narr. Marlene Dietrich. White Star, 1962. This film follows the career of Hitler, drawing inspiration in part from the Reynard legends. Portions of the film are available on YouTube: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-DLDQvwfMjM

Fantastic Mr. Fox. Dir. Wes Anderson. Perf. George Clooney and Meryl Streep. Twentieth Century-Fox, 2009. Trailers for this film are available on the following websites: http://trailers.apple.com/trailers/fox_searchlight/fantasticmrfox/ http://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=fantastic+mr+fox&search_type=&aq=f

Moi Renart. Dir. Jean Cubaud. Perf. Jean-Pierre Denys, Laurent Hilling, and Maryline Saffar. I.D.D.H., 1987. Several episodes from the film are available on YouTube: http://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=moi+renart&search_type=&aq=f http://www.youtube.com/watch#!v=ODv5qb5mw4Q&feature=related

Robin Hood. Dir. Wolfgang Reitherman. Perf. Brian Bedford and Phil Harris. Walt Disney Studios, 1973. Disney portrays characters from the Robin Hood legends as animals who parallel those found in the Reynard texts. The title character is a fox! Clips are available on YouTube: http://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=disneys+robin+hood&search_type=&aq=f

"Róka Koma." Magyar Nepmesek.  This is an animated Hungarian adaptation of the usual fox-dupes-wolf folk tales, with English subtitles.

Le Roman de Renart. Dir. Thierry Schiel. Perf. Frédéric Diefenthal and Marc Bretonnière. Oniria Pictures, 2005. YouTube offers several clips from the film: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ODIeqp2rBQU

Le Roman de Renard. Dir. Ladislas Starewitch. Doriane Films, 1936. (DVD version 1992.) Two brief clips from this film are available on YouTube. In the first, the narrator introduces his story and the title character; in the second, Tibert the cat serenades Queen Fiere: http://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=le+roman+de+renard&search_type=&aq=f

Van den vos Reynaerde. Dir. Egbert von Putten. Nederland Film, 1943. Anti-semitic film made by the Dutch Nationalist Socialist party, based on the novel of the same title by Robert van Genechten. For more information on this film, consult the following article: http://www.awn.com/articles/profiles/reynard-fox-and-jew-animal

Reynard in the Metaphysical Realm

From the bestiaries, we have seen how animals were given very human traits. The trickster, mischievous, self-centered fox began appearing in many places during Medieval Times. Reynard, popular because of widespread oral tradition, became the embodiment of deceit. Through much vigorous research and begging permission for use of Reynard photos, we discovered Reynard appearing on Tarot cards and in woodcarvings in churches and cathedrals throughout Europe.

We were lucky enough to become acquainted with some very intelligent and great people. Michael Hurst, creator and administrator of a website dedicated to the history of the Tarot, has been very helpful. He has some terrific images of Reynard appearing on the Wheel of Fortune card in Medieval Tarot. There are also very detailed descriptions of each card. Our thanks to Mr. Hurst. View his website to see these beautiful and very detailed images.

<<http://pre-gebelin.blogspot.com/2009/04/complex-wheel-of-fortune.html>>

Reynard also appeared on misericords throughout Europe. Misericords are little benches used by monks and the clergy to give the appearance of the perfect kneel. They could lean on the benches for support while "deceiving" the parish into believing that they were kneeling or standing devoutly in prayer. Because Reynard was considered the embodiment of deception, his image was painted or carved into the misericords. In many of these carvings Reynard is wearing the garb of a monk. Perhaps the monks had a sense of humor.

Pictures of misericords with Reynard's effigy can be found on these websites:

<<http://flickr.com/photos/40922198@N00/2872315298>>

<<http://www.paradoxplace.com/Photo%20Pages/UK/Britain_Centre/Ludlow/Ludlow_misericords.htm>>

<<http://myweb.tiscali.co.uk/drericwebb/docs/ripon/ripon.htm>>

<<http://flickr.com/photos/91796142@N00/524071690/>>

<<http://flickr.com/photos/34664244@N05/3704427785/>>

There are many more sites to come.

Reynard on the Web: Useful Links

As much as we would enjoy being the only online resource for Reynard, we must heartily thank these other websites devoted to keeping up with Reynard folklore and merchandise.

Base de Français Médiéval. Ed. Alexeï Lavrentiev. 2005. 14 Mar. 2010. <http://bfm.ens-lsh.fr/>.

"The XVIIIth Colloquium of the International Reynard Society." International Reynard Society. 2009. Universiteit Utrecht. 14 Mar. 2010 <http://www2.hum.uu.nl/congres/Reynard/en-index.html>.

Gefen, Alexandre. "Agrégation Lettres 2008: Le Roman de Renart en ligne." Fabula: la recherché en littérature. 29 Aug. 2007. 14 Mar. 2010 <http://www.fabula.org/actualites/article19821.php>.

"Literary and Storybook Characters: Q-S." Clipart ETC. Educational Technology Clearinghouse. Florida Center for Instructional Technology, College of Education, University of South Florida. 14 Mar. 2010 <http://etc.usf.edu/clipart/galleries/literature/storybook_characters_q_s.php?page=2&term=>. There's some great clipart here from the Reynard tales.

Reynard the Fox Chess Set. JaMar Galleries. 2008. 14 Mar. 2010 <http://www.jamar.com/cgi-bin/Web_store/web_store.cgi?page=A110.html&cart_id=>.

Le Roman de Renart. Ed. Michel Corne. 2010. 14 Mar. 2010 <http://roman-de-renart.blogspot.com/>.